Sunday, February 23, 2020
Convicted felons in the workforce vs human resource management - Research Paper Example This paper is about individuals who possess criminal records, and how their chance to work in the workforce is a notch more difficult than their other peers who have a clean record. In this paper, the researcher would like to focus on a certain type of individual who has been excluded from the rest of society because of their misbehaviour. In legal systems, a felon is someone who has been accused of performing a serious crime and has been legally condemned of doing so. There exist a long list of crimes that can brand a person a criminal, and the ones that are considered to be felonies are not restricted to the following- grand theft, tax evasion, robbery, rape, murder, fraud, kidnapping, violent assaults, treason, arson, illegal drug abuse and drug trafficking, and espionage. Felonies can be considered as a felony under various circumstances, and a convicted felon can only be convicted by a person of legal authority such as a judge (Eisenstein and Jacob, 1991). In this paper, the researcher would like to discuss the reasons regarding preferred characteristics of a potential employee. In the case of felons who decide to join the workforce after serving their time in prison, the researcher would like to investigate how the human resource department in organizations deal with such cases, should they decide to hire a felon. Naturally, hiring a previously convicted criminal can affect an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s operations, so companies must be extremely cautious in such cases. For instance, planning employee activities might have to be planned in a different way, or controlling such employees might have to be done in a different manner. The researcher would like to investigate social views on such a controversial topic, and also what can be done to help these felons find their own niche in the workforce. In 2007, reports were made that there are en estimate of 2 million convicted persons in prison serving their time.
Friday, February 7, 2020
History of modern social thought - Essay Example Bentham was born in February 15, 1748 in Spitalfields, London. He was part of a wealthy Tory family whose proclivity is in the practice of law. His childhood was filled with a mixture of religious superstition, owing to his mother's side, and enlightened rationalism, as his father and grandfather were both attorneys (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). With such a brilliant mind, Bentham was considered as a child prodigy. At an early age, he was found sitting at his father's desk reading a multi-volume of English history and studying Latin. He attended the Westminster School and Queen's College, Oxford, where he completed his Bachelor's degree (1763) and Master's degree (1766). ("West's Encyclopedia of American Law) Bentham's father believed that his son would one day become the Lord Chancellor of England ("UCL Bentham Project"). With this, Bentham was educated as a lawyer and admitted to the bar in 1769. However, he decided against the practice of law as he became disconcerted with the complexity of the English legal code. Instead, he opted to pursue a career in legal, political and social reform. ("West's Encyclopedia of American Law) In light of his chosen career path, Bentham devoted most of his life to writing matters pertaining to legal reforms. He spent most of his time studying as he wrote for eight to twelve hours daily (Harrison). His father's death in 1792 resulted in Bentham's financial independence. With his inheritance, he lived quietly in Westminster of 40 years and generated about ten to twenty pages of manuscript per day. ("UCL Bentham Project") Ironically, he made little effort to publish these manuscripts. Such that shortly before his death on June 6, 1832, John Bowring, his secretary, remarked that from no modern writer had so much been stolen without acknowledgment. (Kahn) Cultural Context of Bentham's Works Bentham lived during the period of massive social, political and economic change. His reflections on existing institutions covered the Industrial Revolution, the rise of the middle class and the revolution in France and America among others. His passion for tackling essential reforms in view of these events was sparked by his disillusionment with the law. After attending the lectures delivered by Sir William Blackstone, the leading authority in law at that time, Bentham became deeply frustrated with the English law. As such, he dedicated much of his life in criticizing the prevailing laws and proposing reforms to enhance the system. As one of the so called "philosophic radicals," Bentham believed that much of the social problems prevailing in England in the late 18th to early 19th century were attributable to the legal system, which was not adoptive of the societal changes and economic system, which was controlled by a landed gentry that was against modern capitalist institutions. ( "Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy") It was also during Bentham's times that England was in the midst of an aggravated state of affairs highly influenced by the Anglican Church. The country was depicted as a puritanical world wherein implemented doctrines encouraged women subjugation and prejudices, and went against natural philosophy. Given these,
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Method of data analysis Essay Thematic analysis was used to make meaningful deductions from the documented raw data. In thematic analysis, a concept is chosen for examination, and the analysis involves noting the frequency of its presence in the whole interview, and finding interrelations among the themes identified. The focus is at the occurrence of selected terms within a text or texts, although the terms may be implicit as well as explicit. While explicit terms obviously are easy to identify, coding for implicit terms and deciding their level of implication is complicated by the need to base judgments on a somewhat subjective system (Patton 2002). Simply put, the researcher read the documented surveys, and analyzed the inter-linkages of these responses. When responses are not explicit, inter-judge validation was used, with another researcher agreeing on the category under which the response may be grouped. The meaning and interpretation of each response was noted, and related to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s overall profile. In this sense and taken as a holistic approach, the data from the chosen institution may be considered as a case study. Methodological Limitations The study also has methodological limitations. First, it did not make use of any other quantitative measure to study the phenomenon apart from qualitative procedure of thematic analysis (Patton 2002). Second, there was only one participant institution, Elfed and its responses may not be reflective of the population it represents (Zikmund 1997). It may be worth noting that the goal of the study is to generalize about the phenomenon across schools; thus, the use of participants from a cross-section of different learning institutions. Third, there were some time constraints on the part of both interviewer and interviewees, which may be a factor in the length of their responses or the duration of the interview. Had there been more time, more probing questions and more data may have been gathered. Moreover, since the study has been limited to an UK-based school, its conclusions may not be able to create a comprehensive generalization to other countries or regions. This is especially true when cultural and economic factors are taken into consideration. Biases in the responses may have occurred since the only source of primary data is the knowledge and perception of the interviewee. The respondent may not be so honest with their answers and express only what is socially desirable, especially because they were Ã¢â¬ËcarryingÃ¢â¬â¢ the name of their school. Logically, they would not want to put the school in a bad light. In addition, since the interviews were conducted at the place of work, the respondents may not be at ease in answering the questions. In effect, their responses may not be as candid or as honest (Denzin Lincoln 2000). Results and Discussion For this part of the study, the results gathered from both the interview and the focus group discussions will be presented in this part of the study. In addition to this, the results will be evaluated and examined with the literature presented in the review of related literature to gather any existing relationships or occurrences within the data gathered. For the first part of this section, the results of the focus group discussion will be presented and will be discussed.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
WolffÃ¢â¬â¢s Critique of ChopinÃ¢â¬â¢s The Awakening The critical case study to the novel establishes a definition of a type of critical response, and then gives as close an example that fits that mode of criticismÃ¢â¬âBORING! First, the book has these forms of criticism laid out contiguously, as if they occurred only spatially and not temporally. This flattened and skewed representation of critical approaches, taking an argument out of its context (an academic debate) and uses it as if it were a pedagogical tool. Just as criticism in many ways takes the life out of the text, by dissecting it and making it a part of an argument, the Ã¢â¬Å"model critical approachÃ¢â¬ takes the life out of criticism. It is interesting to see how the different Case Studies in Contemporary Criticism are altered by the text they are describing. For example, I have one volume on Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man, and another for Great Expectations, both of which demonstrate the extent to which the object of critique affects the critique itself, such that Ã¢â¬Å"deconstruction criticismÃ¢â¬ in an intellectual vacuum is something different than when a scholar tries to apply it to a particular text, altering both the text as well as the principles of deconstruction. The Awakening gender criticism takes on a different feel from Great Expectation gender criticism even though they are informed by the same principles, because gender in the early Victorian Dickens is different than in the turn of the century American Chopin. In this way the criticism co-constructs with the primary document something different than both the criticism and the original text. Such a syntheses have produced exciting and inn ovative ideas, refreshing and reviving works from the tombs of academia. Unfor... ... is also a politics involving real becomings, an entire becoming clandestine. (A Thousand Plateaus 188) Finally, the sea is a common trope for mother, and maternalÃ¢â¬âthat from which life springs. We are presented with Edna running away from Protestant society (the dynamo, the father) to Catholic Creole society (the earth-goddess transformed into the Madonna). She runs away from her father, and there is no mother for her to run towards except the archetypal sea. If these mythic formations say anything, the novel says something about EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s own lost mother. Is the tragedy of the book that this mother is never found even though Edna followed the trail to the musty scent? Is the tragedy of the story EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother died giving birth to Edna, leaving Edna with only one memory of her motherÃ¢â¬âthe musty scent of childbirth? Does this inform her attitudes toward motherhood?
Sunday, January 12, 2020
We know this because not only is the watch predominantly black in color, normally men's etches are black, but also because it's a large watch with a precise and detailed whiteface. We can tell that the advertisement also is aimed at more athletic, or sporty, men who would want to be like NFG quarterback Eli Manning. The advertisement is using the technique of giving the reader an idea of what they could possibly be if they bought the product. The advertisement is inadvertently saying that if you wear a Citizen Codeine watch, that you could possibly be a superstar, Super Bowl winning, quarterback.They are trying to entice men to buy the watch cause most men have dreams of being a handsome, sophisticated, superstar like Eli Manning and the company Is hoping that men will buy this watch In order to try and become like Eli Manning. This advertisement also features 4 large sentences on the right side of the page. The first sentence Is simply Ã¢â¬Å"UnstoppableÃ¢â¬ . It then goes on to s ay how Ell Manning Is unstoppable and then It makes the claim saying Ã¢â¬Å"It's unstoppable, Just like the people who wear ItÃ¢â¬ .These sentences are the mall part of the ad, they are trying to make men realize that If they want to be sophisticated and unstoppableÃ¢â¬ then they must have this watch Like Ell Manning. The advertisement also boasts the fact that the watch will never require a battery. This Is meant to show men that they will not have to worry about buying a new watch battery and getting It Installed. In this ad we see mostly ethos, they are saying that Ell Manning wears this watch so It must be sophisticated and classy. They are using his credibility and hoping that people will trust a NFG superstar.Pathos Is also found In this ad, they use very vivid language when describing Ell Manning and people who ear the watch. They use one word and It Is bolted and repeated throughout the ad. Pathos Is also found In this ad because they are making the reader feel Like If they don't have this elegant watch then they are able to be stopped, but If you do have this watch you are Indeed unstoppable. They are trying to make the reader feel Like they need to buy this watch In order to be successful. Ad analysis By Maydays Eli Manning and the company is hoping that men will buy this watch in order to try the right side of the page.The first sentence is simply Ã¢â¬Å"UnstoppableÃ¢â¬ . It then goes on to say how Eli Manning is unstoppable and then it makes the claim saying Ã¢â¬Å"It's unstoppable, Just like the people who wear itÃ¢â¬ . These sentences are the main part of the ad, they are trying to make men realize that if they want to be sophisticated and Ã¢â¬Å"unstoppableÃ¢â¬ then they must have this watch like Eli Manning. The advertisement also boasts the fact that the watch will never require a battery. This is meant to getting it installed. In this ad we see mostly ethos, they are saying that Eli Manning wears this watch so it must be sophistic ated and classy.They are using his credibility and hoping that people will trust a NFG superstar. Pathos is also found in this ad, they use very vivid language when describing Eli Manning and people who wear the watch. They use one word and it is bolted and repeated throughout the ad. Pathos is also found in this ad because they are making the reader feel like if they don't have this elegant watch then they are able to be stopped, but if you do have this watch you are indeed unstoppable. They are trying to make the reader feel like they need to buy this watch in order to be successful.
Friday, December 27, 2019
Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4201 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? This chapter served as the groundwork for the development of this study. An overview of the extensive historical research on related topics is provided. The literature review is divided into two categories where the first dwells on literatures pertaining on the subject of Performance Appraisals and the second category focuses on motivation theories and their relevance in the Performance Appraisal System. 2.2 Performance Appraisal System 2.2.1 Meaning of Performance: Different authors have differing ideas about what performance actually is. Lebas (1995) defines performance as undertaking a particular action to successfully complete set goals, taking into consideration the given time frame and constraints of the performer and the situation. On the other hand, performance can be demarcated by comparing actual results attained to results that were expected (Dess and Robinson, 1984). According to Brumbrach (1988, cited in Armstrong, 2000): Performance means both behaviours and results. Behaviours emanate from the performer and transform performance from abstraction to action. Not just the instruments for results, behaviours are also outcomes in their own right the product of mental and physical effort applied to tasks and can be judged apart from results.Ã  The above definition considers performance to be involving both the actions taken during the process in attempting to achieve goals and outputs obtained as a result of the effort put. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Performance Appraisals and Motivation Theories" essay for you Create order 2.2.2 Performance Management System (PMS) Following the definition of performance given by Brumbrach, Armstrong (2000) highlights the importance and need for superiors to manage employees performance. To determine if performance has been succeeded, techniques have to be developed to appraise the accomplishments. Performance Management (PM) is one of the ways to manage workers performance today in many organisations. Noe et al (2006) define performance management as a practice used by managers to make sure that employees actions and outputs delivered are consistent with the organisations goals. The concept of PM was first coined by Beer and Ruh in 1976. However, it is barely in the mid 1980s that it had been known as a distinctive approach. PM since then has contributed a lot in the advancement of Human Resource Management. The concept is widely being used in organisations with a view to obtain better results and improved performances from the workforce. Goals and standards are being planned well beforehand in orde r to get satisfied outcomes. 2.2.3 Performance Appraisal System (PAS) Performance Appraisal System is a component of PM. Also known as performance review, it formally documents the achievements of an individual with regards to set targets. Managing employees performance can be said to be as important as any other work that all managers execute during the year. Grote (2002) describes performance appraisal as a formal management tool that helps evaluate the performance quality of an employee. Schneier and Beatty as cited in Patterson (1987) define it as a process which apart from evaluating also identifies and develops human performance. According to Karol (1996) performance appraisal includes a communication occasion planned between a manager and an employee for the main purpose of assessing that employees previous performance and establishing ways for further improvement. 2.2.4 History of PAS The history of performance appraisal is fairly concise. Appraisal really began with the Second World War where it was used to assess outcomes. Performance appraisal was seen in the industry in early 1800. Randell (1994) identified its use in Robert Owens use of silent monitors in the cotton mills of Scotland. The Silent monitors were in terms of blocks of wood with different colours painted on each visible side and it was hung above each employees work station. At the end of the day, the block was turned so that a particular colour, representing a grade of the employees performance, could be seen by everyone. (Weise and Buckley, 1998) Subjective evidence indicates that this practice had a facilitating influence on subsequent behavior. Spriegel(1962) and Weise and Buckley(1998) affirm that by the early 1950s, 61 per cent of organisations regularly used performance appraisals, compared with only 15 per cent immediately after World War II. DeVries et al. (1981) pointed out th e primary tool to be the trait-rating system, which focused on past actions, using a standard, numerical scoring system to appraise people on the basis of a previously established set of dimensions. The main tool, used under here was trait rating system. The concept of Management by Objective (MBO) was first proposed by Peter Drucker in 1954. Mcgreror then used it in the appraisal process in the year 1957. He suggested that, employees should be appraised on the basis of short-term goals, rather than traits, which are jointly set by the employee and the manager. Weise and Buckley (1998) affirm that this method was very advantageous as it lead to a transformation of a managers role from being a judge to a helper. It also showed that employees productivity ultimately leads to performance. However, when employees performance was measured on the basis of units, then MBO was ineffective. This lead to new development in the appraisal process and the employees were evaluated on the ba sis of behaviour based rating. Smith and Kendall (1963) designed the first tool to focus on behaviors and it was the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS). 2.1.5 Modern Appraisal Todays performance appraisal process has evolved into a more planned and formal process. It is used as a means which helps identify and compare employees performances. The appraisals data are frequently being used to review several Human Resources decision. It can determine any need for career developments and trainings. For issues such as raise in salaries, rewards and promotions, employers are more and more making use of the appraisals results. Appraisals have now developed into a regular and intervallic system in organizations, normally carried out at least once a year. When talking about the modern approach to appraisal, the term feedback cannot be ignored. The one-to-one discussion between supervisors and subordinates gives rise to feedback and is referred to as the feedback process. This process can improve communication all through the organization but also it can reinforce employees relationships with their superiors. This is so as the workers have the feeling that they do matter to the organization and that their needs are being taken into consideration. The performance appraisal system has most likely become a future-oriented approach as it aims to improve future performances by considering present problems. 2.1.6 Purposes of PAS The most known purpose of performance appraisal is to improve performance of individuals. Cummings and Shwab (1974) held that performance appraisal has basically two important purposes, from an organizational point of view and these are: 1. The maintenance of organizational control 2. The measurement of the efficiency with which the organizations human resources are being utilized. Still, there are also a variety of other declared purposes for appraisal as per Bratton and Gold (2003) and Bowles and Coates (1993) and some are; improving motivation and morale of the employees, clarifying the expectations and reducing the uncertainty about performance, determining rewards, identifying training and development needs, improving communication, selecting people for promotion, discipline, planning corrective actions and setting targets. Furthermore, Bowles and Coates (1993) conducted a postal survey of 250 West Midland companies in June 1992, where organizations were asked ques tions pertaining to the use of Performance management in the organization. These questions included the apparent purpose of PA in the management of work, its strengths and weaknesses. Through their survey they found out that PA was beneficial in the following ways: PA was favorable in developing the communication between employer and employee It was useful in defining performance expectations It helped identified training needs. Performance appraisal can thus be used as an effective tool to improve employees job performance by identifying strengths and weaknesses, meeting of targeted goals and providing training if needed. 2.1.7 Techniques of PAS There are several commonly used techniques of performance appraisal as reviewed by Oberg (1972). They are as follows: Essay Appraisal, Paired Comparison, Graphic Review Scale, Weighted Checklist, Person to Person Rating, Forced Ranking, Critical Incidents. The above techniques were the traditional ones but the methods most widely used today are: Management by Objectives Employees are requested to put up their own performance objectives. They are then judged through these objectives by verifying whether they were satisfied or not. However, in many cases organizations themselves set their standards and goals even after consulting employees. 360 Degree Feedback 360 Degree Feedback is a process in which employees receive private and anonymous feedback from the people who work around them. Kettley (1997) says that when an individual receives feedback from different sources of the organization, including peers, subordinate staff, customers and themselves, the proce ss is called 360 degree feedback or appraisal. The employee is then assessed using those received feedback. 2.1.8 Feedback Feedback about the effectiveness of an individuals behavior has long been recognized as essential for learning and for motivation in performance-oriented organizations. Ilgen et al. (1979) stated that feedback is considered as an important tool in performance appraisal process. Feedback can be a useful tool for development, especially if it is specific and behaviorally oriented, as well as both problem-oriented and solution-oriented according to Murphy and Cleveland (1995). One of the basic purposes of formal appraisal process is the provision of clear and performance based feedback to employees. Carroll and Scheiner( 1982) affirmed that some organisations use feedback as a development tool, while in some organizations it is used for merit evaluation and compensation adjustment. McEvoy and Buller(1987), Wohlers and Gallagher( 1990) contributed that feedback is very essential for the employees because it forms a baseline for the employees which help them to get a review of their pas t performance and chance to improve their skills for the future. Ashford (1986) says that when feedback is considered as a valuable resource, then only the individuals feel motivated to seek it, which helps in reducing uncertainty and provides information relevant to self-evaluations. There is also evidence that performance feedback (if given appropriately) can lead to substantial improvements in future performance (Guzzo et al., 1985; Kopelman, 1986; Landy et al., 1982) Fedor et al. (1989); Ilgen et al. (1979) identified that it is commonly accepted that negative feedback is perceived as less accurate and thus less accepted by recipients than positive feedback. Furthermore, Fedor et al. (1989) found that negative performance appraisal feedback was less accepted and perceived as less accurate than positive performance appraisal feedback. 2.1.9 Views Organisations Employees have on P.A.S Evans (1986) asserts that many employees believe that their promotion or salary increments depend mostly on their performance. Employees therefore are in a dilemma and consider this situation as survival of the fittest. They know for a fact that, their performance will only be taken into consideration at the end of the day. So, in order to grow in the company they need to be proactive towards their work. The feedback the employee receives from his superior, may simply describe the level of performance achieved. Hence, it becomes important for the managers to conduct the appraisal technique correctly. Employees can only accept criticism if it is useful and important to them. Managers should therefore know how to give information regarding progress made in performance and how to present criticism as well. Meyer et.al (1965) carried out a study in General Electric Company where certain points relating to performance feedback was highlighted. In this study, 92 employees were appr aised by their managers on two occasions over two weeks. The study was carried out using questionnaires, interviews and observation. The first appraisal highlighted performance and salary while the second one underlined performance and improvement. It was observed that lots of criticisms were pointed out by the managers, which lead to defensive behaviour of the employees. The conclusion of the study was that criticism leads a negative impact on the motivation and performance of the employees. Also feedback sessions designed to improve performance should not at the same time consider salary and promotion issues. Ilgen et. al (1979) add that employees who believe that the appraisal system is under any kind of bias, are most likely to be dissatisfied by their work and can also leave their jobs. On the other hand Murphy and Cleveland highlighted one possible reason for the widespread dissatisfaction with performance appraisal in organization as the systems used by these help neith er them nor their employees in meeting the desired goals. Landy et al. (1978) and Tang and Sarsfield-Baldwin (1996) found evidence that the assignment of raters influences perceptions of fairness and accuracy in performance appraisals and hence about the whole process itself. Nevertheless, according to Jacobs, Kafry Zedeck (1980) employees perceive PA to give them a proper understanding of their duties and responsibilities towards the organization. Likewise, organization sees it as a tool to assess employees on a common ground and one which helps in salary and promotions decisions, training and development programs. In many circumstances appraisal plans are interpreted by managers as a system that helps an organization to change regular priorities and usual ways of working and in so doing to alter its strategic direction. Hence, in circumstances where change cannot be attained by managerial proclamation, appraisal takes on the character of an engine of change. When manager s look at appraisal from this angle they hope that it will bring about a change in strategic direction and organizational behaviour. Researchers have suggested that reaction to performance appraisal is critical to the acceptance and use of a performance appraisal system (Bernardin Beatty, 1984; Cardy Dobbins, 1994; Murphy Cleveland, 1995). Reactions may even contribute to the validity of a system (Ostroff, 1993). Cardy and Dobbins (1994) suggest that with dissatisfaction and feelings of unfairness in process and inequity in evaluations, any performance appraisal system will be doomed to failure (p. 54). Murphy and Cleveland (1995) stated that reaction criteria are almost always relevant, and an unfavorable reaction may doom the carefully constructed appraisal system. 2.1.10 Benefits of PAS Possibly the most important benefit of appraisal is that, in the rush and pressure of todays working life, it allows the supervisor and subordinate to have time out for a one-on-one discussion of indispensable work problems that might not otherwise be addressed. Likewise, the existence itself of an appraisal system indicates to employees that the organization is genuinely concerned with their individual performances and advancement. This only can have a positive impact on the employees sense of worth, commitment and belonging. Appraisal offers the rare chance to focus on employment activities and objectives, to spot and correct existing problems and to enhance favorable future performance. Thus the performance of the whole organization is improved. Performance appraisal usually provides employees with acknowledgment for their work efforts, if any and as a result it brings them satisfaction. Actually, there are facts supporting that human beings will even prefer negative re cognition in rather than no recognition at all. During performance appraisals, feedbacks are obtained. These provide vital information on whether training and development needs should be considered. The presence or lack of working skills, for example, can become very obvious. The supervisor and subordinate can thus agree upon any demand for training. As far as the organization is concerned, the overall appraisal results can provide a regular and efficient training needs audit for the organization as a whole. The information obtained from appraisals can also give indication on an organizations recruitment and selection practices. This can be done by screening the performance of recently hired workers. The general quality of the workforce can also be monitored by assessing any improvement or decline performances. Changes if needed in the recruitment strategies can then be considered. 2.1.11 Criticisms related to P.A.S There are several problems in the actual performance appraisal primarily due to rater bias. Some supervisors are too lenient and thus have a tendency to rate all employees positively rather than really measuring their performance. Another problem is the central tendency where supervisors position the majority of the employees in the center of the performance scale, even though they deserve a better or worse grade. The halo effect is another error usually made during appraisals. This arises when a supervisors general feeling about an employee influences the overall judgment. Performance appraisal systems are at times criticized for weaknesses in the system design itself. Sometimes they assess the wrong behaviours or consequences, or focus on employees personality instead of on their work performances. Very often standards for appraising employees are not related to the work itself. As a consequence employees may not likely be interested in such a system where performance stand ards are unsuccessful in highlighting important aspects of the jobs. Some organizations founds that PAS is a constant cause of tension, since evaluative and developmental concerns come often into disagreement. It is said that the appraisal can serve only one of them at a time. Also they find it dehumanize and demoralize to pass on judgments which then become source of apprehension and stress to employees. Many researchers such as Derven (1990) expressed doubts about the effectiveness and dependability of the appraisal process. Some found the process to be imperfect in nature. Moreover, Gabris Mitchell (1989) found a disturbing bias in the appraisal process called the Matthew Effect. It is said to take place in cases where employees keep on receiving the same evaluation each year. This denotes that there is the belief that if an employee has work well, he or she will continue on that pace. The Matthew Effect advocates that even if employees struggle to do well, their past a ppraisal reports will discriminate their future progress. Accuracy is important in appraisals. However for raters to appraise employees accurately, they should give unbiased results. Unfortunately accurate ratings are quite impossible as researchers affirm that personal liking, look, former impressions, gender and race will certainly manipulate appraisals, that is, there will always be some kind of biasness. 2.1.12 Conclusion about PAS There are various schools of beliefs as to the validity and reliability of performance appraisals. While Derven (1990) doubts about its dependability, Lawrie (1990) finds it to be the most important aspect of organizations. A recent survey concluded that more than fifty per cent of the workforce wishes that their supervisors list the performance objectives much more specifically and clearly. The same survey revealed that 42 per cent of the employees were rather disappointed their organisations performance appraisal system. Many supervisors make the wrong use of appraisal. They use it as a punitive tool rather than helping their subordinates to improve their performance and overcome work problems. According to Shelley Riebel, as in the Detroit News (April 11, 1998) often managers are unsuccessful to explain what they really expect from their employees and fail to well describe the criteria used for assessing their performance. The data obtained during the appraisal proce ss should be wisely used and considered. Still, for performance appraisal to be successful, it is important to carry it out on a regular and consistent basis. This will allow supervisors to follow and review employees work. Raters often make the mistake of emphasizing too much on mistakes committed by the employees. Rather, if ever some problem is spotted by the supervisor, the issue should be discussed with the employee concerned and both should try work on a solution. 2.2 Motivation Performance Appraisal System 2.2.1 Introduction to Motivation Motivation can be defined as the driving force that moves us to pursue a certain goal, or trigger a particular action. It can be considered as the desire within a person causing him or her to act. People generally act for a motive and that is to achieve a specific objective. Two main types of motivation have been noted, namely intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation comes from the inner self while extrinsic motivation arises when external factors require one to perform something. According to Passer and Smith (2004) the concept motivation refers to a course of action that influences the determination, direction and dynamism of goal-directed behaviour. Similarly, Kreitner and Kinicki (2007) assert that motivation represents psychological practices that stimulate voluntary actions. In the work context, as confirmed by Coetsee (2003), motivation entails the readiness of individuals and groups to put much effort so as to achieve organizational goals. From the above, it can be construed that there exists no single and general definition for motivation. Yet, Boje and Rosile (2004) regard motivation as an authoritarian ideology, a way to manipulate performance and where visions of self-actualisation need gratification. This view might be too negative to consider, but the rise in capitalism has been driven by high concentration motivation programmes which sometimes turn employees into production machines. 2.2.2 Motivation and P.A.S in Organisation Today Motivation can be the key to a successful organization. It is often claimed that the best businesses have the best motivated workers. Well motivated employees are said to be more productive and perform quality work. It remains however one of the most challenged tasks for managers to motivate their staffs as everyone is unique. A supervisor should strive to tie in the companys goals together with the employees individual goals through performance management. Moreover, the whole performance appraisal process and its result can affect an employees motivation. As highlighted by Cummings and Shwabs (1974), employees performance is the outcome of the employees motivation to perform. In an organisational context, the performance is appraised by assessing the employees aptitudes and potentials to achieve the set goals. 2.2.3 Theories of Motivation related to P.A.S 188.8.131.52 Edwin Lockes Goal Setting Theory A main element for efficiently coaching employees is by using goal setting. Edwin Locke (1968) introduced the Goal Setting Theory whereby employees get motivated to work for the organisation when they are given specific and pronounced goals to achieve. This theory emphasizes that hard goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals. Secondly, particular hard goals produce higher level of output and lastly, behavioural intentions lead to choice behaviour. Many, who study the relationship between performance and motivation in organizations, will agree that goal-setting and explanation creates confidence in the workers. By clearly explaining the meaning of the goals, employees will have a clear view on what the organization wants to achieve. Coetsee (2003) affirms that the most performing workers are goal-directed. Set goals allow employees to accomplish organisational vision, aims and strategic objectives. The assumption made here is that when people recognise and unde rstand what is expected from them and how they are to be met, they will be motivated to achieve them within the time-limit. With regard to coaching, goal-setting theory has been used more than any other as a framework to motivate employees to improve their performance. As cited by Cary L. Cooper, Edwin A. Locke (2000), the early work of Maier (1958) and Meyer et al. (1965) emphasized goal setting in the appraisal process. In a study, Latham et al. (1978) found that consistent with the theorys predictions, employee participation in setting the goals resulted in higher performance than assigning them, not because of greater goal commitment, but rather due to high goals being set. According to Dossett et al. (1979), a similar result was observed with Weyerhaeusers word processing employees. Goals and objectives set by the employers and employees should be discussed regularly. Erez (1977) asserted that for difficult goals to result in high performance, sufficient feedback is ve ry important. 184.108.40.206 Behaviour Maintenance Model (BMM) Cummings and Swabs presented the Behaviour Maintenance Model (BMM) to illustrate how people are motivated to perform efficiently in an organisation. This model emphasises on the significance of outcomes in the motivational process. Fig.1: Behavior Maintenance Model This framework shows that goal aspirations results in goal attainment and motivation. When goal attainment is achieved by the employee, it leads to job satisfaction which in turn leads the employee to become motivated. 220.127.116.11 Victor Vrooms Expectancy theory Expectancy theory is an idea that was introduced by Victor Vroom. The theory as explained by Kreitner Kinicki (2007) is based on the assumption that people are motivated to act in ways that will be followed by valued and desired outcomes. The theory says that an employee might be motivated when there is a belief that a better performance will result in a good performance appraisal which will help in the realization of personal goals. The theory focuses on motivation as the combination of valence, instrumentality and expectancy. Valence is the value of the alleged result. Instrumentality is the point of view of an individual whether he or she will really obtain what they want. It shows that successful act will eventually lead to the desired result. Expectancy refers to the different level of expectations as well as confidence regarding ones capability. Employees believe that these create a motivational force and this force can be represented by the formula: Motivation = Valence x E xpectancy The theory focuses on three things: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Efforts and performance relationship ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Performance and reward relationship ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Rewards and personal goal relationship 2.2.4 Conclusion: Performance Appraisal as Motivator? From the above reviews, it can be seen that no such research has been done to show if performance appraisal really acts as a motivator to employees. Bratton and Gold (2003) and Bowles and Coates (1993) claimed motivation to be one of the purposes of appraisals. It remains unconditional to know whether performance appraisal has a role to play in employees motivation. The research will therefore try to answer the following research questions: Does the Performance Appraisal System affect employees motivation? Does the system affect more a specific category of employees? How do employees perceive the PAS at the MRA? How do employees perceive feedback? Does the level of importance given to the system directly affect the employees motivation? Does the trust put on the appraiser influences the employees motivation?